a) Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL)
In the hydrothermal liquefaction process, suspended biomass in water is pressurized and heated to temperatures near the critical point of water and kept at this temperature for several minutes. During this process a multitude of reactions take place including chain scission, hydrolysis, decarboxylation, and elimination of water. The two later are responsible the large drop in oxygen content from the feed stock (50%) and the produced bio-crude(10-15%), as oxygen is eliminated as water and carbon dioxide.
Following the reaction, the process fluid is cooled and depressurized and the phases are separated. The produced oil is separated and if necessary filtered for a minor fraction of solid byproduct (Bio-char) The gas phase is emitted and the water-phase containing a range of soluble organics that can be valorized bi anaerobic digestion to biogas allowing nutrients to be recovered from the waterphase. In general, the oil phase will contain from 70-80% of the energy content of the biomass feedstock
Typical process conditions are 15-20% dry matter in feed, reaction temperature around 350 oC, pressures around 250 Bar and reaction time in the range of 10-20 minutes.
The unique Bio2oil technologies (Scaleability, cost efficiency and energy recovery)
Bio2Oil ivs in collaboration with researchers at Aarhus University in Denmark have developed a range of unique technologies to improve the conversion and energy efficiency of the process.
- Plug flow reactor – with no constrictions
- A continuous fed pumping system allowing pumping of high DM streams
- A patented oscillatory flow system, improving heat recovery, reducing viscosity and improving plug flow characteristics
- A proprietary solid state heat recovery system with demonstrated heat recovery up to 85%
- A unique take of system, eliminating the need for failure prone back pressure regulators
Bio2oil ivs has expertise to a range of additional technologies including…
b) Other technologies
Pretreatment of feed streams, Down-stream processing – refining, Valorization of water soluble products(biogas…), Use of the Bio2Oil process for hydrothermal pretreatment etc.